The BBC Obituary: French thinker Baudrillard dies1
The French sociologist
and philosopher Jean Baudrillard has died aged 77 at his home in Paris following a long illness. Baudrillard, a leading post-modernist thinker, is perhaps
best known for his concept of hyper-reality. He argued that spectacle is
crucial in creating our view of events – things do not happen if they are not
He gained notoriety for
his 1991 book The Gulf War Did Not Take Place and again a decade later
for describing the 9/11 attacks as a "dark fantasy". Baudrillard
focused his work on how our consciousness interacts with reality and fantasy, creating
from them a copy world he called hyper-reality. He said that mass media led to
hyper-reality becoming a dominant force in today's world – an argument taken to
a provocative extreme in his statement that the 1991 Gulf War primarily took
place on a symbolic level. Since little was changed politically in Iraq after the conflict, all the sound and fury signified little, he argued.
In his essay The
Spirit of Terrorism: Requiem for the Twin Towers, he caused controversy
again by describing the 9/11 attacks as a fusion of history, symbolism and dark
fantasy, "the mother of all events". While terrorists had committed
the atrocity, he wrote: "It is we who have wanted it. Terrorism is
immoral, and it responds to a globalization that is itself immoral."
Born in Rheims into a peasant family, he studied German at the Sorbonne, later working as a
teacher and translator. He taught sociology throughout the 1960s. He was a
prolific writer, penning more than 50 works including: Simulacra and
Simulation (1981), America (1986), and The Spirit of Terrorism
and Requiem for the Twin Towers (2002).