Until We No Longer Speak His Name
Dr. Gerry Coulter
(Bishop’s University, Sherbrooke, Quebec, Canada)
Freud missed was not seeing the curvature of life in death, he missed its
vertigo and its excess, its reversal of the entire economy of life, making it,
in the form of a final pulsion, into a belated equation of life. Freud stated
life’s final economy under the sign of repetition and missed its paroxysm.
Death is neither resolution nor involution, but a reversal and a symbolic
Baudrillard’s grave – Cemetery Montparnasse,
Photograph: William Pawlett
isn’t everything. It is a very little thing.2
the most frequently occurring concepts in Baudrillard’s writing is “death”. The
passing of Baudrillard3
has led me to reread and rethink his writing on the subject while overseeing
this special issue and virtual memorial. This issue is itself part of the death
which Baudrillard began before his biological death and that goes on after his
life. “Life” in this view, as he explains in Symbolic Exchange and Death,
“is impossible to distinguish from death”.4
Baudrillard rejected the Western scientific notion of death with its final irreversible,
and objective character.5
In the West it is very difficult to “escape the State monopoly over death”, to
choose to disconnect one self from the network (suicide) has been made into a
“Science” he said: “makes death inhuman, irrational and senseless”.7
is not surprising that he chose to die at home among friends. For Baudrillard
the goal of thinking about death was to see the “radical indeterminacy of life
and death” the way in which cultures other than our own have viewed it. According
to some of these views death cannot be understood as a form of “due payment”
but rather as a “nuance of life” or as he preferred it: “life is a nuance of
death”. Death in Baudrillard’s writing “is a rendez-vous, not an
There is death before death just as there is life after life.9
And so Baudrillard, like all of us, was dying from the moment of his birth and
will not finally die until we no longer speak his name.
Baudrillard On Death
our eyes are merely a blank film which is taken from us at our deaths to be
developed elsewhere and screened as our life story in some infernal cinema.10
death Baudrillard wrote that it “does not allow itself to be caught in the
mirror of psychoanalysis” and “nothing corresponds to death except death”.11
“The object represents our death”12
and in our world of objects we have a “passion for accidents and death”.13
He wrote about the political economy of death,14
sex and death, and how in our prohibitive era, only death is pornographic.15
Cronenberg’s Crash was the exception that proved this rule for Baudrillard
by the extraordinary manner in which it pointed to a correspondence between sex
Baudrillard noted that while death is “censured everywhere, death springs up
– reversibility would have it no other way. Poetically, he used the story of
death in Samarkand to remind us of our powerlessness in the face of that unavoidable
the story of a soldier who meets Death at a crossing in the marketplace, and
believes he saw him make a menacing gesture in his direction. He rushes to the
king’s palace and asks the king for his best horse in order that he might flee
during the night far from Death, as far as Samarkand. Upon which the king
summons Death to the palace and reproaches him for having frightened one of his
best servants. But Death, astonished, replies: ‘I didn’t mean to frighten him.
It was just that I was surprised to see this soldier here, when we had a
rendez-vous tomorrow in Samarkand’.18
for Baudrillard could have “the effect of a prophetic disappearance” such as in
the deaths of Barthes and Lacan.19
He wrote about the left and the right on death20
and how the power which priests tried to exert over death was in our history
perhaps the birth of large scale social control.21
Among our responses to power he said we “dream of a violent death, unbearable
In his concern about the perfect crime and our descent into digitality,
cloning, and artificiality Baudrillard introduced the term “absolute death” to
describe a kind of regression that takes us “toward a state of minimal
differentiation among living beings, of a pure repetition of identical beings”.23
In a future world of clones, death (and sex) must die: “Death is under the
threat of death”.24
But he did wonder if clones of the future might be able to purchase the “luxury
of death” (once a vital function) – enjoying what would be for them a
“cyberdeath”. Such beings could enjoy death if they were to “become mortal once
again in simulation”.25
we pity the clones perhaps it is because “it is the paradox of our society is
that we can no longer die in it because we are already dead,
The modern metropolis was for Baudrillard a culture of death.27
Further, in the “cybernetic functionality of the urban environment is death” – we
find it “scattered among all the virtual productive [and protective] forms”.28
Our true necropolises, he wrote are; “computer banks and foyers, blank spaces”.29
In his assessment of 9/11 Baudrillard discussed the impossible exchange with
death and the challenge to the system represented by the “symbolic gift of
Baudrillard, “rather than death, we should speak today of extermination, about
the absence of destiny, slow, endemic, extermination”.31
In our world of hyper-security and the fear of terrorism we attempt to dissuade
death at the “price of continual mortification”.32
In our time the technical extreme unction of science and medicine take charge
of us, replacing all other sacraments.33
Elsewhere he wrote that death, which “runs beneath the surface of all
is itself the sacrament.35
Funeral homes only pick up where the medicalization of death leaves off with
their “absurd connotation of naturalness for the dead”.36
Death is made shameful and obscene.37
We attempt, he said, to ward off the ambivalence of death by seeing life as a
for Baudrillard, death is a far more innocent player39
than we take it to be and it lies buried under the “contrary myth of security”.40
Death for Baudrillard is a risk in every symbolic pact,41
it is “an event that has always, already taken place”.42
He addressed the concept of the “death drive” in at least seven books43
and also made mention of a “death impulse”.44
He thought death to be from a place beyond the “unconscious” and said that it
must be “wrested from psychoanalysis and turned against it”.45
Psychoanalysis, for Baudrillard, is one of the fields in our culture that
operationalizes everything as part of a greater societal functioning of
simplification – the shelving of complexity – and the simplification of our
mental functions. And so in our easy and operational environments the “mirror
has been turned into a phase, pleasure into a principle and death into a
As such, the exclusion of death “is at the core of the rationality of our
For assessing our culture of simulation, death, as it turns out, was one of
Baudrillard’s favourite metaphors.48
In its hypocritical position towards the crumbling of Yugoslavia Baudrillard
said that the West had taken the dead man’s place.49
Where else would one expect to find a civilization pursuing both advanced
technological wars and a policy of “zero deaths”.50
memorial issue contains more than eighty articles, obituaries, and other memory
traces of Baudrillard (including a graffiti mural). The first section contains
three papers given in honour of Baudrillard at the annual meetings of the
International Association for Philosophy and Literature (IAPL, Nicosia, Cyprus,
2006). Here Joseph Tanke remembered fondly Baudrillard’s ability to complicate
moral and political understandings. Leslie Curtis recalls Baudrillard’s many
strategic challenges – especially his unforgettable challenge to the arts. My
remembrances for the IAPL were of Baudrillard as a writer.
remaining remembrances of Baudrillard are organized under two main headings:
“Remembrances from the Academy” and “Remembrances from Elsewhere”. Among the
academics most of the usual (and a few unusual) suspects are present. John
Armitage remembers Baudrillard’s deep challenge to Sociology. Jon Baldwin
remembers fifty-eight aphorisms on death by Baudrillard and others which are
“structured by death”. Simon Blackburn writes of Baudrillard’s gift for
assaying our contemporary mediated realities. According to
Blackburn, “even if engagement with the world is the cure, the respite it gives
may be short-lived. No sooner has the real moment gone than the work of memory
begins, once more selecting, massaging, suppressing and spinning.
Butler notes that Baudrillard eventually arrived at the concept of simulation
by “pushing to the limit the ideas of a language of objects and the untethering
of consumption from need”. Reality in this view becomes an effect of its
representation. His passing, notes Butler – paraphrasing Baudrillard – makes
the world seem more enigmatic. Alan Cholodenko dipped into his memory chest and
retrieved “the Future-Fall rap” which he performed for a conference in Australia in 1984 at which Baudrillard made an appearance. He offers it here as a memorial to Jean. The ending of the third stanza
seems so fitting today as we think not about the meaning or destiny of
Baudrillard (see Butler) but his “effect”. “No subject, no object – no future, no
past – no text, no context – presence’s absence at last”.
My obituary remembers Baudrillard as a joyful
thinker and writer who feared the state capable of ending terrorism far more
than terrorism itself. I offer some memories of losing a friend and the one
person who spoke to me most directly in his writing. I remember Baudrillard as
a good person in whom evil will remain indebted for a very long time. For me,
the passing of Baudrillard is the passing of one of the signs of our times. Marcello Faletra gathers up many of
the concepts which lead to memories of Baudrillard’s incredible singularity in
contemporary thought. Gary Genosko recalls Baudrillard’s contributions to semiotic and
structural studies. Chris Horrocks remembers Baudrillard the “outlaw theorist”
and one instance when Baudrillard repudiated an event from within the event. Stephen
Jones recalls an important lesson from the writing of Baudrillard – that
“thought should… always leave the grasp of that which confines it”.
Douglas Kellner’s contribution remembers
Baudrillard as a poststructuralist
thinker who consistently avoided fads. For Kellner Baudrillard was one of
contemporary philosophy’s most radical thinkers in that he undermined vital
categories “of Western philosophy and contemporary theory”. Many came to
appreciate the notion of theory [as] fiction in a very personal manner through
Baudrillard’s writing. Rex Butler notes how Baudrillard’s appearance at a
conference in Australia “irrevocably changed the terms of intellectual debate”
in that country. Kellner’s obituary reminds us also of the enormous impact
Baudrillard (like many others of his generation such as Lyotard), changed how
people around the world speak of theory. Contemporary theory for example has
rapidly split into two groups: those who include Baudrillard and French theory
more broadly [theory as a challenge to the real], against those who now inhabit
the Jurassic parklands of objective theory. Kellner reminds us that Baudrillard
shows us [as Lotringer once put it] that “theory may even be a way out of
C. J. Lee recalls how Baudrillard changed the intellectual landscape for his
generation. Daniel Miller represents those who did not like the later
Baudrillard but appeals to us to not forget the early works. William Nericcio
remembers Baudrillard as part of a French influenza that influenced an entire
generation in the humanities in America. Geert Lovink and McKenzie Wark discuss
the future of theory after Baudrillard. They see Baudrillard as having moved
theory closer to poetry and for turning anecdotes into theory. Lovink hopes
theory can, after Baudrillard, open spaces of possibilities. Wark hopes for a
Baudrillard affect “where theory is a way of thinking mixed series, flows of
news, of tools, of gestures, of events, of moods”. Christopher Norris, like
Wark, wonders about Baudrillard and the future of pedagogy asking how contemporary
educational practices might seek ways to resist the “code”.
Noys recalls Baudrillard as not merely an author of theory fictions, but ones
that should be placed under the heading “Horror theory fiction”. Robin Parmer
has nothing to say to Baudrillard’s disappearance – and he says it with
elegance acknowledging that his silence is indebted to Baudrillard. William
Pawlett reminds us, optimistically, that by “submitting to all hypotheses, even
Baudrillard’s provocations and speculations, the world generates a radical
uncertainty and remains ultimately elusive”. Paul Taylor’s memory of
Baudrillard takes him into a criticism of academe during our times of “disciplinary and methodological
petty-mindedness”. If Baudrillard’s significance is missed by many in the
academy today Taylor points to those upon whom the blame falls. Scott Stephens reflects on
Baudrillard’s “cool” way of thinking and wonders if the form that ethics must
take in our time is nihilism? Thinking for Baudrillard was “elevated to an
ethical imperative” writes Stephens, pointing to the “catastrophic role of
thought” Baudrillard favored. Emily Theriault ends the section of reflections
from the academy by capturing so much of what Baudrillard meant to a generation
of critically engaging undergraduates and graduate students.
death also brought forth a few rather vicious pieces the kind of which followed
Derrida’s death in much greater number. The two most offensive to Jean’s
friends and survivors which appear here are Robert Fulford’s obituary in
Canada’s National Post and Carlin Romano’s “Death of a Clown” which
appeared in the Chronicle of Higher Education. Some will be angry with
me for reprinting these contemptible memories but they too are ways of
remembering Baudrillard (who would most likely enjoy these more than the fond
memories and leave us with a comment about how his virulence seems to have
passed on to these authors!) In any event I see it as an important part of my
mission not to protect readers of this journal from challenges. As Bourdieu
told us – academic life is a contact sport. Baudrillard could take a hit with
the best of them and like all great players of any game was subject to numerous
cheap shots from lesser opponents.
McLemee’s obituary sends a good deal of challenge back in Fulford’s direction.
Richard Prouty also takes Fulford and those like him to task for attacking
Baudrillard because of the way he exposed the most cherished illusions of
intellectuals. Joseph Tanke addresses the Romano’s “hyperbolic pronouncements”
rather well. Richard Pope challenges both Fulford and Romano. As for Romano – it appears he shares a set of commonsense blinders with the American right-wing – these blinders serve as a form of intellectual
protection from the brightness of provocative contemporary philosophical ideas.
In the end it appears that Romano didn’t really hate Baudrillard, simply the
fact that no one reads Henri Troyat anymore. I quite agree with Romano that
Troyat is an interesting read and I’ll also keep working to see that Romano is
wrong about the most provocative assertion uttered in any of Baudrillard’s
obituaries – that “no one will read Baudrillard in fifty years”. One hopes it
is a fate that has not already befallen Troyat. It seems that Romano’s
prediction is off to a bad start if we go by Technorati’s counting which has
Baudrillard among the top ten subjects in hyperspace these days. Baudrillard’s
double is rather busy as it turns out!
per day about “Baudrillard (90 day period ending July 22, 2007)52
of the remarkable aspects about our call for memories of Baudrillard is that so
many “non-experts” responded. This tells us something good about the reach of IJBS
(which currently takes about 16,000 total hits per month on its articles and
reviews), and it says something interesting about Baudrillard. He did not write
merely for an academic audience and it would have done his memory a great
disservice to publish a special issue of memories to him which was confined
only to academics. I have heard that two such “academics-only” publications are
being prepared for 2008. Pity.
the memories from beyond the academy, Victoria Alexander has sifted through
Baudrillard’s oeuvre with an eye on his deployment of the concept “world”.
Alexander traces for us some of the contours of Baudrillard’s world as the
concept appears in over 20 of his books and wonders if it will survive his
passing. She sees the time following his death as a time of great urgency and
begins her essay with a very poignant question: “Does the passing of
Baudrillard also mark the end of the ‘world’?” The question remains unresolved
but in forcing us to peer over the enormity of its abyss Alexander leads us to
ponder the very future of our species.
silence we have the image – and here we have an image sprayed onto a wall in Germany (Jean Baudrillard: R.I.P.) by the Zonenkinder
Collective of street artists. My short writing
which accompanies it points to Baudrillard’s appreciation for the diverse
significances of graffiti.
Obituaries have been collected from the major
mass media, materials posted on Internet blogs, and remembrances we received
from students concerning the impact he had on their life. These diverse
writings together form a poignant reminder of the reach of Baudrillard into the
lives of those who do not earn their daily bread as scholars. I am very pleased
to have these here as they are a significant slice of the Global conversation
taking placed concerning Baudrillard’s work of which IJBS is now a
Agger quite rightly remembers Baudrillard’s America as “Baudrillard
101”. The Antigram website recalls – Baudrillard’s courageous gesture against
the New York City art scene of the 1980s. The Apocryphist website
reminds us that it takes a simulacrum to know one in a piece of apocryphal wit.
Julian Baggini discusses differences between the French and Anglo-American
philosophical style and tells us that for many in the English world Baudrillard
simply had too much style. The BBC obituary kept its distance from
Baudrillard focusing attention of his writing on the Gulf War and 9/11 without
missing the point of either (as many mass media sites did). Kim Clune predicts that
Baudrillard will remain important to future generations and offers a poignant
thought on paradise and Disneyland.
Patricia Cohen wrote a very thoughtful
obituary for the New York Times but in the end it suffers from the same
handicap as most of the mainstream media obituaries – the writer really did not
know Baudrillard’s work very well and does not purport to understand it. The Times
of London avoided this problem by having an obituary by Mike Gane on file
(written about two years before Baudrillard’s death). One wonders how many
other living thinkers already lay dead and eulogized in the private files of
the Times. It is a kind of modelling approach to obituaries that I
really don’t think Baudrillard would be very comfortable with! Still, Gane’s
obituary (matched only by Chris Horrocks for the Independent), was
exceptional among the English news obituaries for its knowledge of Baudrillard
and his work.
Tyler Cowan strikes a sad note when he expresses
what so many feel – that the death of Baudrillard represents the loss of a font
of many great books. For those who knew Jean only through his writing this is
a point that cannot be underestimated. The obituary on the Dead Author
website takes this a point further noting that for most people Baudrillard
existed only as a mediated simulacrum or in the simulations of his books. As in
the case of Derrida, the best mainstream obituary for Baudrillard appeared in
the Economist. It is witty yet speaks to the absence Baudrillard
photographed then left to us. Tim Footman reminds us that Baudrillard made us
feel so hyperreal and ends with a note on George Bush and the simulated turkey
he took to the troops in Iraq – a non-edible (plastic) oil product. The
Global Game website survey’s Baudrillard’s relationship with the game of
football (soccer). Douglas Groothius’s obituary speaks to the power of
Baudrillard’s discourse beyond the walls of academe where, despite difficulties
in understanding his writing, readers were encouraged to press on by the very
quality of his writing. Owen Hatherley observes that Baudrillard’s was never a
part of promotional culture – even in his writing on architecture as
Baudrillard’s was more interested in autopsy than diagnosis.
David Hopkins addresses the panic stricken
ways we respond to a world proliferating in simulacra. From the Immodest Proposals
website a simulation concerning counterfeit Baudrillard’s. The Immomus
website contrasts some French and English obituaries for Baudrillard. The K-Punk
website obituary reminds us that reality took its leave before Baudrillard.
This is another of several obituaries that recognize the autopsy approach in
Baudrillard’s writing. The Last Vehicle website discussed the
appropriateness of invoking the Matrix in remembering Baudrillard. This
thoughtful piece also wonders about what we are trying to bury in making an
archive of his obituaries.
David Lomax says good bye to Baudrillard from
an architectural perspective. Karina Longworth says that negation was a
character flaw which for Baudrillard turned into an imperative. Yet she
recognizes that Baudrillard’s intention was not to scold. The Love The Book
site sides with Baudrillard’s most unpopular claims about America. Robert
Mackey remembers Baudrillard with a very ironic story about treating
psychologically injured Gulf War veterans using gaming technology. The
Masticator obituary leads those who look upon American culture as powerful
to recall how Baudrillard pointed out that it is actually quite hollow – no
culture but wonderful teeth! J. Clive Matthews takes the opportunity provided
by Baudrillard’s death to speculate about the spread of anti-intellectualism in
popular obituaries. Stephen
Poole of the Guardian wonders if Baudrillard has really entered into
Sam Prestridge relies on
Baudrillard for an assessment of the hyperreal American president. The Richard
is Retired website ponders the end of Baudrillard in the context of our
constantly shifting reality. Timothy Ruggerio recalls that Baudrillard’s line
of thinking was developed
to fight “the annihilating and homogenizing effects of our culture and to
sustain a role for serious thinking”. Stefan Steinberg’s obituary for the World
Socialist recounts Baudrillard from a left wing perspective which labours
under a God-like conception of Marx. Baudrillard is cast by Steinberg as one
of the current degenerates – not unlike the way in which the NAZI’s once cast
modern artists. In any event, Steinberg writes an obituary from a perspective
that is rapidly evaporating and this, along with its rather nostalgic quality,
makes it a very interesting read. Ironically this is where it intersects with
Baudrillard as the academic Marxist position has all too often been dedicated
to protecting students from critically reading Marx from anything other than an
ideological position devoted to Marxism. Baudrillard might have found such a
memory rather quaint yet somehow touching. G. Christopher Williams points out
that Baudrillard outlived the real. The ever illusive Charles H. de Selby provides an
interesting example of postmodern generation – with Baudrillard no less! If not
automatic writing we certainly can call it machine text – (see for yourself).
mainstream media obituaries were captivated by Baudrillard’s recent writing on 9/11
and his assessment of the virtual Gulf War produced as a television model in
1991. Two which do a decent job with these ideas are The Telegraph
obituary; Shelley Walia’s obituary for The Hindu Magazine; and Elaine
Woo’s for the Los Angeles Times. Overall the mainstream media obituaries
were distant but not mean spirited as in the case of Derrida’s passing. This
might have troubled Baudrillard a good deal. Baudrillard died one day before
Captain America and the coincidence did not escape the notice of Stacy Hardy, Sam Leith, or the
Raincoaster website. Overall Baudrillard’s death is understood as a significant
loss in the blogs of hyperspace.
are also several non-English language obituaries included. In German we have
Thomas Assheuer’s memories for Die Zeit Newspaper; in French Robert
Maggiori’s obituary in Libération; Christian Delacampagne’s obituary for
Le Monde and that of Les Humains Associés; Paul François Paoli’s tribute
in Le Figaro; and the collection of tributes “L’hommage Américain à Baudrillard”
by leading American artists, writers, and theorists collected by Les Nouvel
Observateur: (Gary Indiana, Sylvere Lotringer, Douglas Kellner, Norman M.
Klein, Mark Poster, Mackenzie Wark, Peter Halley, Paul D. Miller, Avital
Ronell, Rosalind Kraus, Kathryn Bigelow, Jim Fletcher, Tim Griffin, Chris
Kraus, Michael Silverblatt, Michael Tolkin, Lawrence D. Kritzman, and Eric
Gans), In Italian we have memories from Marcello Faletra, Attilio Scarpellini, and Rene Capovin.
the book which reads me.
the TV which watches you.
the object which thinks us.
the lens which focuses on us.
the effect which causes us.
language which speaks us.
time which wastes us.
money which earns us.
death which lies in wait for us.53
is throughout Baudrillard’s oeuvre a joy in thought and an express joy in
writing. “Writing is closer to thinking than it is to speaking”54
for Baudrillard – it allows us to think beyond the end. In his writing on death
Baudrillard did just that. One particular instance now stands as his final
challenge to us. As “a reversal and a symbolic challenge” death then, for
Baudrillard, must be enjoyed because “reversibility is the only source of
The writings of a writer are his life after life, a nuance of life – a
rendezvous with many who are not yet born.
all of these memories alongside of Baudrillard’s writing about death has led
me, in the end, to a question which I asked in my IAPL memorial paper for
Cyprus: What would your life be like if you had never read Baudrillard? This
question, among other things, is part of keeping Baudrillard alive in death. He
will live for as long a we continue to speak his name. Any replies IJBS receives
to this question, as well as any other memories, will be posted to future
updates of this archive.
Coulter is the
founding editor of the International Journal of Baudrillard Studies. He
writes a regular column for Euro Art (Online) Magazine http://www.euroartmagazine.com. Recent
publications include: “One Among Several – The Traditional Gaze Seduced: Toward
A More Complex Understanding of Eros in Modernism, appears in Kritikos:
A Journal of Postmodern Cultural Sound, Text, and Image (July, 2007): http://intertheory.org/coulter2.htm. A
review of Baudrillard’s books The Conspiracy
of Art, and Utopia Deferred have recently appeared in the Canadian
Review of Sociology and Anthropology: http://www.csaa.ca/bookreview/reviews/2007reviews/200707/Baudrillard.htm
recently won Bishop’s Universities highest award for teaching – the William and
Nancy Turner Prize
1 Jean Baudrillard. Symbolic
Exchange and Death (c 1976). New York: Verso, 1993:156.
2 Jean Baudrillard. This note was
included on the funeral invitation I received in March 2007.
3 Jean Baudrillard passed away at his
home in Paris on March 6, 2007
4 Jean Baudrillard. Symbolic
Exchange and Death (c 1976). New York: Verso, 1993:159.
8 Jean Baudrillard. Seduction. Montreal: New World Perspectives, 1990:73.
9 Jean Baudrillard. Symbolic
Exchange and Death (c 1976). New York: Verso, 1993:158.
10 Cool Memories, 1980-1985
(1987). New York: Verso, 1990:63.
11 Jean Baudrillard. Symbolic
Exchange and Death (c 1976). New York: Verso, 1993:154, 37.
12 Jean Baudrillard. The System of Objects (1968).
New York, Verso, 1996:97.
13 Jean Baudrillard. Screened Out
(2000). New York: Verso, 2002:168.
14 Jean Baudrillard. Symbolic
Exchange and Death (c 1976). New York: Verso, 1993:125-193.
16 Simulacra and Simulation
(1981). Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Press, 1994:116.
17 Jean Baudrillard. Symbolic
Exchange and Death (c 1976). New York: Verso, 1993:185.
18 Jean Baudrillard. “Death
in Samarkand” in Seduction. Montreal: New World Perspectives. S:72-78;
see also Jean Baudrillard. Passwords. New York: Verso, 2003:68; Jean
Baudrillard. Cool Memories V. London: Polity, 2006:103; and Jean
Baudrillard. The Lucidity Pact or the Intelligence of Evil. New York: Berg, 2005:103
19 Cool Memories, 1980-1985
(1987). New York: Verso, 1990:118.
20 Jean Baudrillard. Symbolic
Exchange and Death (c 1976). New York: Verso, 1993:171 ff.
23 The Vital Illusion (The 1999
Wellek Lectures at the University of California at Irvine). New York: Columbia University Press, 2000:6.
24 Jean Baudrillard. The Perfect
Crime. New York: Verso, 1996:49.
25 The Vital Illusion (The 1999
Wellek Lectures at the University of California at Irvine). New York: Columbia University Press, 2000:12; see also Jean Baudrillard. Impossible Exchange
(c1999). New York: Verso, 2001:30.
26 Jean Baudrillard. America. New York: Verso, 1988:43.
27 Jean Baudrillard. Symbolic
Exchange and Death (c 1976). New York: Verso, 1993:127.
28 Jean Baudrillard. Symbolic
Exchange and Death (c 1976). New York: Verso, 1993:185; and Jean
Baudrillard. The Singular Objects of Architecture (c 2000) (With Jean
Nouvel). Minneapolis, Minnesota: University of Minnesota Press, 2002:57.
29 Jean Baudrillard. Symbolic
Exchange and Death (c 1976). New York: Verso, 1993:185.
30 Jean Baudrillard. The Spirit of
Terrorism. New York: Verso, 2003:57.
31 Jean Baudrillard. Paroxysm:
Interviews with Phillipe Petit. New York: Verso, 1997:39-40.
32 Jean Baudrillard. Symbolic
Exchange and Death (c 1976). New York: Verso, 1993:178.
34 Jean Baudrillard. Impossible
Exchange (c1999). New York: Verso, 2001:7.
35 Jean Baudrillard. Cool Memories
II: 1987-1990 (1990). Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, 1996:C2:60.
36 Jean Baudrillard. Symbolic
Exchange and Death (c 1976). New York: Verso, 1993:181.
39 Jean Baudrillard. Seduction. Montreal: New World Perspectives, 1990:73.
40 Jean Baudrillard. Symbolic
Exchange and Death (c 1976). New York: Verso, 1993:177.
41 Jean Baudrillard. Seduction. Montreal: New World Perspectives, 1990:124.
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